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Dyslexia is an unexpected difficulty learning to read despite intelligence, motivation and education.

The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) refers to Dyslexia as, a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002. Also used by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).

What are the strengths and difficulties experienced by students with Dyslexia?


Difficulties or Red Flags

Average to above average intelligence Learning to speak
Creative and strong verbal skills Learning letters and their sounds (blending and segmenting)
Logical thinker Organizing written and spoken language
Can easily grasp new concepts when presented orally Memorizing number facts
Excellent oral comprehension Reading quickly enough to comprehend
Artistic or musical Reading with fluency and automaticity
Solves puzzles and work in 3D Persisting with and comprehending longer reading assignments
Technological Spelling
Athletic Learning a foreign language
Inclination to think outside of the box Correctly solving math operations
Understands abstract ideas

Not all students who have difficulties with these skills have Dyslexia. Formal testing of reading, language, and writing skills is the only way to confirm a diagnosis of suspected Dyslexia.

What type of reading instruction best serves students with Dyslexia?

As students with Dyslexia have difficulty with phonological processing and word recognition effective reading instruction must include explicit, systematic, cumulative and multi-sensory instruction in:

  • Phonology
  • Sound/Symbol Association
  • Syllable Instruction
  • Morphology
  • Semantics
  • Syntax
  • Students must also have instruction in vocabulary and comprehension.

For more information:?

What interventions does APS provide to serve students with Dyslexia?

APS offers the following interventions for students with Dyslexia that are available at all schools.Elementary:

  • Phono-Graphix Methodology
  • Orton Gillingham Methodology
  • SpellRead Program
  • My Virtual Reading Coach Program
  • Read Naturally Program (fluency)


  • Orton Gillingham Methodology
  • My Virtual Reading Coach Program
  • Read Naturally Program (fluency)

For more information on these and other APS interventions, please visit the 鶹 Tiered System of Support (ATSS) webpages.

What are some classroom accommodations and supports that can be provided to students with Dyslexia?


  • Allow student to read independently; Avoid asking students to read aloud in front of others
  • Read aloud and provide visual supports
  • Provide Alternative reading materials
  • Reduce the amount of required reading assignments using grade level material and/or provide audio supports
  • Provide extended time for assignments
  • Use Audiobooks
  • Use Electronic texts (E-books)
  • Allow and use text to speech software
  • Provide Access to the APS Library Digital Collections
  • Provide Access to the :
  • Provide Accessible Instructional Materials (AIM VA)**Talk to your Special Education Coordinator at your school to learn more about AIM VA.


  • Provide copies of notes and materials to reduce the need to copy from the board
  • Avoid marking students down for spelling errors
  • Allow the use of speech to text software
  • Provide note-taking assistance and partial outlines
  • Provide graphic organizers or other structural aids for written assignments
  • Provide Extended time

Where can I find additional information about Dyslexia?

  • APS:
  • VDOE:
  • VDOE:
  • Ted Talk:
  • (IDA)
  • (Accessible Instructional Materials)
  • (CLD)
  • (LDA)
  • ?– The Educators Guide to Learning Disabilities and ADHD